(Continued from page two . . . )
The ZGC is currently composed of (a) representatives from the World Unions, including Mapam, Likud, Moledet, Mizrachi, The World Confederation of United Zionists, Mercaz and the Women's International Zionist Organization, (b) representatives from the International Jewish organizations including the World Sephardi Federation, B'nai B'rith, Maccabi World Union, World Conference of Synagogues (Orthodox), World Council of Synagogues (Conservative), World Union for Progressive Judaism (Reform), Students Delegation, and The Delegation from the CIS. The current number of representatives from all of these groups is 192.
Also acting as participants in the ZGC in an advisory capacity, in pursuance of Article 32, Section 3 of the Zionist Constitution are, (a) all members of the ZE (b) one representative each of the Jewish Colonial Trust (which in effect is Bank Leumi), the Jewish National Fund, and the United Jewish Communities charity, the President of the Zionist Supreme Court, the Attorney of the WZO, The Comptroller, other Zionist leaders not to exceed 16 as proposed to the ZGC by the ZE and the Presidium jointly, something called "honorary fellows", and the former chairmen of the ZE and the AGC as well as the chairmen of the Zionist Federations whose countries were represented at the ZC by only one or two delegates.
The ZGC convenes upon the conclusion of the ZC which elected it. The elected chairman of the ZGC is also the chairman of the Presidium.
The ZGC meets once a year in June, and its agenda is determined seventy days prior by the Presidium and the ZE (which of course begs the question, what is the need for the ZGC in the first place, and secondly, how byzantine can these structures get? If you are confused dear reader, don't despair; that is the point.)
Now the ZGC no doubt makes some of those on it feel important, even though the real work of the ZGC is conducted by:
This sub-body of the ZGC is composed of the chairman of the ZGC and 30 other members. Now where does the real power lie? That is also spelled out in the Constitution. "In periods between the sessions (meaning every month except June when the ZGC meets as a body) the functions of the Presidium shall be discharged by its members domiciled in Israel. The places of members of the Presidium domiciled abroad shall be filled, in periods between the sessions, by deputies domiciled in the State of Israel who shall be elected by the ZGC together with members of the Presidium." However in the outline of the functions delegated to the Presidium, as outlined in the WZO website, it is clear that these are merely either of a strictly structural nature or pro forma based on the decisions of the ZE.
THE ZIONIST SUPREME COURT
The seat of the court is permanently in Jerusalem. The President of the ZSC is elected by the ZC. There are also judicial bodies set up in countries where a territorial Zionist Organization exists. The functions of these bodies are to rule on disputes between territorial Zionist bodies, or between individual Zionists.
The ZSC also appoints the Chairman and members of the CENTRAL ELECTIONS BOARD. The Chairman MUST be an Israeli Judge or Judge Emeritus from Israel.
THE ATTORNEY OF THE WZO
Elected by the ZC. Function is to represent the interests of the WZO brought before the ZSC, to advise the Central Zionist Bodies in legal matters connected with the WZO, the ZC, ZGC and ZE, with the relations between the Central Zionist Bodies and individual Zionists.
THE COMPTROLLER OF THE WZO
Elected by the ZC. Function is to inspect the financial, economic, administrative and organizational activities of the WZO, its officers, companies and institutions of every kind, including those in which the WZO holds at least 50% of the voting power or capital.
THE ZIONIST ARCHIVES
Just what its name implies. It is the historic archive of the WZO, the JA, Keren Hayesod and the World Jewish Congress, where historically valuable documents on Zionism are kept.
THE JEWISH NATIONAL FUND
The JNF/KKL deserves a book of its own, and indeed such a book exists, as mentioned previously. However no discussion of the effect of the WZO on Jews would be complete without delineating the functions of the JNF. It was established in 1901 at the 5th ZC for the purpose of purchasing land for the Jewish People in perpetuity. In fact, land purchased by the JNF may only be leased from the JNF, and then it may only be leased by Jews. Uri Davis discusses the limitations of the JNF and other "voluntary confessional associations" of the WZO up until 1948. (Uri Davis, Israel, An Apartheid State p. 14). "The JNF, for instance, since the year of its incorporation in London in 1907 until 1948, had failed to purchase more than 936,000 dunums of land [or] some 3.5% of the 1922 Mandate Palestine or some 5% of pre-1967 Israel territory." These voluntary organizations gained legal status and far greater power with the establishment of the state of Israel through "the introduction of legislation (and thus) the legal situation governing the activities of the WZO, the JA, the JNF, the Histadrut, the Workers Company, and their various subsidiaries radically altered."
What made this legislation passed by the State of Israel and thus making the WZO/JA and its subsidiaries including the JNF so insidious is that these organization's "respective constitutions, which were legally binding on what were, until 1948, technically voluntary organizations, are now incorporated into the legal foundation and the body of law of the state of Israel, thereby establishing a situation of radical legal apartheid of Jew versus non-Jew."
This legal apartheid in Israel, to which the JNF is a party is accomplished by what Davis describes as "a two tier structure" which has preserved the veil over Israeli apartheid legislation for almost four decades.
"The first tier at which the key distinction between Jew and non-Jew is rendered is in the Constitution and Articles of Association of all the institutions of the Zionist movement."
The Constitution of the JA stipulates: "Land is to be acquired as Jewish property and the title of the lands acquired is to be taken in the name of the JNF to the end that the same shall be held THE INALIENABLE PROPERTY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE." (Article 3 (d))
The Memorandum of Association of the KKL/JNF as incorporated in Israel in 1954, defines the objective of the Israel company as being "To purchase, acquire on lease or in exchange in the prescribed region (which expression shall in this Memorandum mean the state of Israel in any area within the jurisdiction of the Government of Israel [which means the occupied territories-bf]) or any part thereof, for the purpose of settling Jews on such lands and properties. (Article 3 (a))
Davis describes the second tier in this legal apartheid as the level at which the Constitution and Articles of Assn of all the executive bodies of the WZO are incorporated into the body of laws of the state of Israel. These organizations which prior to 1948 "could credibly have claimed to be voluntary, have been incorporated into the legal compulsory judicial state machinery." (ibid, pp.56-57)
In the course of its history the JNF/KKL has established at least fifteen subsidiaries, either wholly or partially owned, the purpose of which is to help establish Jewish infrastructure and control over Palestine, and later, not only the State of Israel, but The Land of Israel.
In 1903 assets of 19,767 pounds sterling, as well as 200 dunams of land were donated by Israel Goldberg. This was used to establish the Hebrew University in 1918.
In 1909 the Palestine Office in Jaffa of the WZO, received a loan from the JNF of 10,000 pounds sterling to establish the village of Tel Aviv.
JNF subsidiaries for land development and other purposes are:
The National Water Co. has its own subsidiaries:
A covenant between the Minister of Finance of The ZE and the JNF in 1961 established
"The JNF, as incorporated in 1907, was explicitly prohibited from selling land it had acquired, but was empowered by clause 3.11 of its Memorandum of Association to exchange land. [This clause] was amended in 1933... deleting the word exchange and making [an exchange] subject to two provisions (a) exchange could be effected only if the land to be received was of equal or greater value and (b) the Board of Directors was satisfied that the exchange will be conducive to carrying out the primary objective of the Association.
Events in Palestine circa 1936 and Germany circa 1933 [pointed to] a new need for extension of Jewish land-ownership an opportunity that the JNF was unable to meet. German Jews anxious to leave Germany were not attracted by the prospect of becoming members of collectives on JNF land in Palestine; they preferred to own their own land and means of livelihood. The WZO having negotiated in 1933 an agreement with the authorities in Germany for the capital of these Jews [note 158: This chapter in the history of Zionism is not widely known and is as yet largely unwritten.] The authorities in Germany, beginning in Jan. 1933, were the National Socialist (NAZI) government headed by Adolf Hitler. The August 1933 agreement between the German government and the WZO involved both the emigration of German Jews and the transfer of their capital to Palestine. To effect the latter, German Jews deposited their funds with a company in Germany called PALTREU: Palestina Treuhandtelle zur Beratung deutscher Juden, [Edwin Black in The Transfer Agreement on p. 249 refers to it as Palestina-Treuhandstelle zur Beratung deutscher Juden GmbH The Palestine Trust Society for Advice to German Jews, Inc. and that it fell under the supervision of the ZVfD (Zionistische Vereinigung fur Deutschland The German Zionist Federation) in Berlin] "Palestine Trust for the Counsel of German Jews"; which was set up for this purpose, which bought German goods for export. These goods were then sold in Palestine by another company, HAAVARAH (which fell under the supervision of the Anglo-Palestine Trust Co. in Palestine Black, ibid): Hebrew ha-avarah, "the transfer"; which after deducting the costs of these services, paid the net proceeds to the German emigrants who came to Palestine. This arrangement, under which some 6 million pounds sterling were transferred to Palestine continued until the outbreak of WWII.
Klaus Polkehn, in an essay in the Journal of Palestine Studies V, nos. 3-4 (1976), pp. 54-82, titled "The Secret Contacts: Zionism and Nazi Germany 1933-41", shows that this collaboration was effected through high-level contacts and was systematic, sustained and mutually advantageous.
See also Jon and David Kimche, The Secret Roads: The "Illegal" Migration of a People, 1938-48 (London 1954 pp. 15-19, 28-38); and Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil [London 1963, 54-56], was determined to facilitate their migration to Palestine (for two purposes), an increase in Jewish numbers and land ownership. (However by covenantal restrictions) the JNF could not sell land it had acquired nor act as an agent for private purchasers.
[Thus a subsidiary was established] to buy with the transferred capital of the German Jews, land in Palestine, and hold it on behalf of these prospective immigrants until their immigration could be effected. Since the JNF was under direct and total control of the WZO,[this control] would extend to a subsidiary of the JNF. [This subsidiary] was called HEMNUTAH. The purpose of the company was "to purchase, take on lease or otherwise acquire, and to hold, manage, develop, parcellate, partition, cultivate, improve, lease, sell, exchange, mortage, build on or otherwise dispose of and generally deal with lands, and other rights and other real and personal property and any estate or interest in Palestine." Hemnutah [still exists]. As of Dec. 1977, ownership of the 1,000 shares is 993 by the JNF, Jerusalem and seven individual shares held by shareholders all of whom are members of the JNF Board of Directors and/or senior JNF officials.
The JNF was statutorily prohibited from selling land or acting as an agent for purchasers, but Hemnutah was set up to do both of these functions. Lehn and Davis raise the question of why the Palestinian Land Development Corporation was not used for this purpose. Nothing about this anomaly is found by them in JNF sources and these authors conclude therefore that "the reason would appear to be that the JNF, not surprisingly preferred to have a purchasing agent under its full control (which the PLDC was not), and which in addition could perform other useful services for the JNF."
This is the key to how the Hemnutah Corporation is significant today, and why the JNF, although it presents itself as an association for the afforestation of the country is in fact being used as an institution for apartheid purposes. Lehn and Davis explain, "Though Hemnutah was established for a specific purpose to purchase and hold land for the settlement of German Jews (after it received the money from HAAVARA which was transferred to it from PALTREAU) it continued to exist long after this purpose had been served. Hemnutah still exists and since 1967 has been active in the occupied West Bank."
Hemnutah serves a legal function (albeit disingenuous), in that it may acquire land which is available for purchase, but which for a number of reasons the JNF could not acquire. It can then either hold or sell this land, or transfer ownership to the JNF. Thus Hemnutah gives the JNF much greater flexibility and freedom of action, while allowing the JNF to adhere to the letter of its statutes, if not their intent.
Before 1976 JNF sources do not even mention Hemnutah, although it does appear in a survey prepared in 1946 for the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. In this survey it is stated that although the JNF "is prohibited by its statutes from selling any land, as all property is to be held in trust for The Jewish People", this does not apply to Hemnutah, "a subsidiary of the JNF", which "enjoys freedom of disposition and holds land which is intended for ultimate transfer to principals for whom the JNF is merely an agent or for exchange for consolidation or other purposes. (Lehn and Davis p. 67)
After 1967 the newly occupied territories allowed for expanded JNF activities and Hemnutah accordingly became an Israeli company. This required no new registration procedures, since any company registered in Palestine and continuing to function after May 1948 automatically became an Israeli company. The JNF was an exception to this. In the May 1973 Memorandum of Association the JNF made a decision to have Hemnutah assume greater responsibility in the holding and administration of properties.
It should come as no surprise that one would not learn any of this from visiting the official websites of the JNF or the JAFI. Some of these activities might be of embarrassment to its supporters and contributors. For the same reason, very little is said about subsidiaries operating in the territories occupied since 1967, where instead of the JNF operating openly, has the work done for it by Hemnutah, Afra and others. For the same reason, the memoranda of association are couched in the most general terms, empowering subsidiaries to operate with extensive and almost unlimited scope. Thus if necessary there is an overlapping of functions.
The JNF has five wholly owned subsidiaries: (a) Hemnutah (b) Etsyonah (c) Negbah (d) Me'azeq and (e) Hapaq.
The reason for the founding of these and other subsidiaries are twofold.
One, the JNF itself could not achieve the objective by statute; and second, the JNF preferred not to be openly identified with it. Because it is clear from the JNF memorandum of association that most JNF subsidiaries exceed its authorization under statute, they are in violation of the Memorandum of Association, thus another reason why the JNF does not publicize these facts.
In summation because of the relationship between the JNF and the government of Israel, JNF restrictive land policies have been adopted on 93% of the lands of "The Jewish State".
In conclusion and summation, it is therefore apparent that through groups belonging to such branches of the WZO as the Territorial Federations, and groups belonging to the Zionist Congress, as well as the role played by such recent organizations as the Joint Authority for Jewish Zionist Education, and through fund raising instrumentalities such as the Jewish National Fund, and the United Jewish Communities (UIA, UJA and CJF), that Jews in North America have contributed both knowingly and many times unknowingly to the hegemony of control which the World Zionist Organization has foisted on those to whom Judaism was once a religious creed, no more no less.
Dr. Bill Friend, 11 Jan. 2000
INTERNET (WORLD WIDE WEB) SITES
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UNITED JEWISH COMMUNITIES (Merger of UJA, Council of Jewish Federations and the UIA)
THE AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR JUDAISM
THE JEWISH NATIONAL FUND, Walter Lehn with Uri Davis, 1988: Kegan Paul Int. Ltd.
THE PALESTINE PROBLEM IN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND WORLD ORDER, W. Thomas Mallison & Sally V. Mallison, 1986: Longman Group Ltd.
THE TRANSFER AGREEMENT, The Untold Story of the Secret Pact Between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine, Edwin Black, 1984: MacMillan
ZIONISM IN THE AGE OF THE DICTATORS, Lenni Brenner, 1983: Lawrence Hill
THE ZIONIST CONNECTION, What price peace? Alfred M. Lillienthal, 1978: Dodd-Mead
FROM HAVEN TO CONQUEST, Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem Until 1948, edited and introduction by Walid Khalidi, 2nd printing 1987, Washington: The Institute For Palestine Studies
A HISTORY OF THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT, Mark Tessler, 1994: Indiana University Press
A HISTORY OF ZIONISM, Walter Laquer 1978, 2nd printing: Schocken Books
PEOPLE AND POLITY, The Organizational Dynamics of World Jewry, Daniel J. Elizar, 1989: Wayne State University Press
THE JEW'S STATE, A Critical English Translation, (Theodor Herzl), trans. & intro. By Henk Overberg, 1997: Jason Aronson, Inc.
THEODOR HERZL, Desmond Stewart, 1974: Doubleday
THE LABYRINTH OF EXILE, A Life of Theodor Herzl, Ernst Pawel, 1989: Farrar, Straus & Giroux
SELECTED ESSAYS OF AHAD HA'AM, translated from the Hebrew by Leon Simon, 1981: Atheneum, NY.
JEWISH HISTORY, JEWISH RELIGION, Israel Shahak, 1994: Pluto Press
ZIONISM & RACISM, EAFORD
THE PALESTINIANS IN ISRAEL, A Study In Internal Colonialism, Elia T. Zureik, 1979, UK: Routledge and Keegan Paul Ltd.
ISRAEL An Apartheid State, Uri Davis, 1987: Zed Books Ltd.
ENCYLOPEDIA OF ZIONISM AND ISRAEL, ed. Raphael Patai, 1971 Herzl Press & McGraw Hill, 2 Volumes, 1,292 pages
ENCYLOPEDIA OF THE PALESTINE PROBLEM, Issa Nakhleh, 1991, Intercontinental Books, NY, 2 Volumes, 1,191 pages
THE AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR JUDAISM SPECIAL INTEREST REPORT, NOV.DEC.1999. P.O. Box 9009 Alexandria, Va. 22304, Allan C. Brownfeld Ed. Vol.28 no.4